Fun with the Catechism

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I really like the question. It seems from the quotation of Father Raphael V O’Connell SJ, above, Saint Anselm says, “every soul, at the moment when it is infused into the body, is entrusted to the keeping of an angel.” Therefore at conception.
That means every soul, Catholic and non-Catholic has a guardian angel from the moment of conception. At the moment of conception the whole person is present and alive in the tiny conceptus. That person cannot be alive without a soul.

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How long does the indelible mark on our Soul remain?

According to the Douay Catechism 1649:

The indelible mark or Character on soul will remain forever, either to our great joy in heaven or, our confusion in hell.


From the Catechism of Trent:

Sacramental Character
The second effect of the Sacraments which, however, is not common to all, but peculiar to three, Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders is the character which they impress on the soul. When the Apostle says: God hath anointed us, who also hath sealed us, and given the pledge of the Spirit in our hearts, he not obscurely describes by the word sealed a character, the property of which is to impress a seal and mark.

This character is, as it were, a distinctive impression stamped on the soul which perpetually inheres and cannot be blotted out. Of this St. Augustine says: Shall the Christian Sacraments accomplish less than the bodily mark impressed on the soldier? That mark is not stamped on his person anew as often as he resumes the military service which he had relinquished, but the old is recognised and approved.

This character has a twofold effect: it qualifies us to receive or perform something sacred, and distinguishes us by some mark one from another. In the character impressed by Baptism, both effects are exemplified. By it we are qualified to receive the other Sacraments, and the Christian is distinguished from those who do not profess the faith. The same illustration is afforded by the characters impressed by Confirmation and Holy Orders. By Confirmation we are armed and arrayed as soldiers of Christ, publicly to profess and defend His name, to fight against our internal enemy and against the spiritual powers of wickedness in the high places; and at the same time we are distinguished from those who, being recently baptised, are, as it were, newborn infants. Holy Orders confers the power of consecrating and administering the Sacraments, and also distinguishes those who are invested with this power from the rest of the faithful. The rule of the Catholic Church is, therefore, to be observed, which teaches that these three Sacraments impress a character and are never to be repeated.
I have read somewhere that when a soul enters eternal life in heaven that the guardian angel leaves - sort of goes into anonymity. That would probably be so because one becomes angelic oneself replacing the angels that rebelled against God.

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Father Pfeiffer spoke of the five notions in one of his conference talks. I had never heard of them, so I looked them up and found the following:

https://www3.nd.edu/~afreddos/courses/417/trinityhandout.pdf

Extract:
A notion is the proper idea whereby we know a divine Person. Now the divine persons are multiplied by reason of their origin: and origin includes the idea of someone from whom another comes, and of someone that comes from another, and by these two modes a person can be known. Therefore the Person of the Father cannot be known by the fact that He is from another; but by the fact that He is from no one; and thus the notion that belongs to Him is called "innascibility." As the source of another, He can be known in two ways, because as the Son is from Him, the Father is known by the notion of "paternity"; and as the Holy Ghost is from Him, He is known by the notion of "common spiration." The Son can be known as begotten by another, and thus He is known by "filiation"; and also by another person proceeding from Him, the Holy Ghost, and thus He is known in the same way as the Father is known, by "common spiration." The Holy Ghost can be known by the fact that He is from another, or from others; thus He is known by "procession"; but not by the fact that another is from Him, as no divine person proceeds from Him.

Therefore, there are five notions in God: "innascibility," "paternity," "filiation," "common spiration" and "procession." Of these only four are relations, for "innascibility" is not a relation, except by reduction, as will appear later (I:33:4 ad 3). Four only are properties. For "common spiration" is not a property; because it belongs to two persons. Three are personal notions--i.e. constituting persons, "paternity," "filiation," and "procession." "Common spiration" and "innascibility" are called notions of Persons, but not personal notions, as we shall explain further on (I:40:1 ad 1).​

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